PseudergolinaeNiklas Wahlberg and Andrew V. Z. Brower
This tree diagram shows the relationships between several groups of organisms.
The root of the current tree connects the organisms featured in this tree to their containing group and the rest of the Tree of Life. The basal branching point in the tree represents the ancestor of the other groups in the tree. This ancestor diversified over time into several descendent subgroups, which are represented as internal nodes and terminal taxa to the right.
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Pseudergolinae is a small clade of seven species occurring in Southeast Asia and the Malay Archipelago, and one more species in New Guinea.
The relationships of Pseudergolinae have been enigmatic for a long time. Traditionally, they have been placed in the Limenitidinae, with one species (Amnosia decora) even being transfered to the tribe Nymphalini, and the genus Dichorragia being placed in Apaturinae. Molecular data have given a much clearer picture, supporting the hypothesis that Pseudergolinae is a monophyletic group (Wahlberg et al. 2003, 2005, 2009). Pseudergolinae is sister group to the remainder of the nymphaline clade (Wahlberg et al. 2009).
The topology illustrated is that of Wahlberg et al. (2005), who sampled only one species per genus. However, species within genera are very similar to one another, and the genera differ significantly from each other morphologically. Thus the sister relationships of species within genera appear to be quite certain.
Wahlberg, N., A. V. Z. Brower, and S. Nylin. 2005. Phylogenetic relationships and historical biogeography of tribes and genera in the subfamily Nymphalinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 86:227-251.
Wahlberg, N., J. Leneveu, , U. Kodandaramaiah, U., C. Peņa, , S. Nylin, A. V. L. Freitas & A. V. Z. Brower. 2009. Nymphalid butterflies diversify following near demise at the cretaceous/tertiary boundary. Proc. R. Soc. London B 276, 4295-4302.
Wahlberg, N., E. Weingartner, and S. Nylin. 2003. Towards a better understanding of the higher systematics of Nymphalidae (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 28:473-484.
University of Turku, Finland
Correspondence regarding this page should be directed to Niklas Wahlberg at and Andrew V. Z. Brower at
Page copyright © 2009 Niklas Wahlberg and
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- First online 25 September 2006
- Content changed 18 November 2009
Citing this page:
Wahlberg, Niklas and Andrew V. Z. Brower. 2009. Pseudergolinae http://tolweb.org/Pseudergolinae/69948/2009.11.18 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/. Version 18 November 2009 (under construction).