Temporary Page


Penis Worms

Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
Containing group: Bilateria

Other Names for Priapulida


Briggs, D. E. G., D. H. Erwin, and F. J. Collier. 1994. The Fossils of the Burgess Shale. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washingthon, D.C.

Bruton, D. L. 2001. A death assemblage of priapulid worms from the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale. Lethaia 34:163-167.

Conway Morris, S. 1977. Fossil priapulid worms. Special Papers in Palaeontology 20:1–95.  

deRosa, R., J. K. Grenier, T. Andreeva, C. E. Cook, A. Adoutte, M. Akam, S. B. Carroll, and G. Balavoine. 1999. Hox genes in brachiopods and priapulids and protostome evolution. Nature 399:772-776.

Storch, V. 1991. Priapulida. Pages 333-350 in: Microscopic Anatomy of Invertebrates, Vol 4. F. W. Harrison and E. E. Ruppert, eds. Wiley-Liss, New York.

van der Land, J. 1970. Systematics, zoogeography, and ecology of the Priapulida. Zoologische Verhandelingen Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie te Leiden 112:1–118.

van der Land, J. and A. Nørrevang. 1985. Affinities and intraphyletic relationships of the Priapulida. Pages 261-273 in The Origins and Relationships of Lower Invertebrates. S. Conway Morris, J. D. George, R. Gibson, and H. M. Platt (eds.). The Systematics Association and Clarendon Press, Oxford, England.

von Salvini-Plawen, L. 1974. Zur Morphologie und Systematik der Priapulida: Chaetostephanus praeposteriens, der Vertreter einer neuen Ordnung Seticoronaria. Zeitschrift für zoologische Systematik und Evolutionsforsching 12:31–54.

Wills, M. A. 1998. Cambrian and recent disparity: the picture from priapulids. Paleobiology 24:177-199.

Information on the Internet

Title Illustrations
Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
Scientific Name Priapulida
Creator Ivy Livingstone
Body Part external features
Copyright © 2001 BIODIDAC
About This Page

All Rights Reserved.

Citing this page:

Tree of Life Web Project. 2002. Priapulida. Penis Worms. Version 01 January 2002 (temporary). http://tolweb.org/Priapulida/2476/2002.01.01 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/

edit this page
close box

This page is a Tree of Life Branch Page.

Each ToL branch page provides a synopsis of the characteristics of a group of organisms representing a branch of the Tree of Life. The major distinction between a branch and a leaf of the Tree of Life is that each branch can be further subdivided into descendent branches, that is, subgroups representing distinct genetic lineages.

For a more detailed explanation of the different ToL page types, have a look at the Structure of the Tree of Life page.

close box


Page Content

articles & notes



Explore Other Groups

random page

  go to the Tree of Life home page