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taxon links [up-->]Polyzoniida [up-->]Julida [up-->]Siphonophorida [up-->]Glomerida [up-->]Spirostreptida [up-->]Siphoniulida [up-->]Sphaerotheriida [up-->]Glomeridesmida [up-->]Spirobolida [up-->]Callipodida [up-->]Chordeumatida [up-->]Penicillata [up-->]Platydesmida [up-->]Stemmiulida [up-->]Merocheta Phylogenetic position of group is uncertain[down<--]Arthropoda Interpreting the tree
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This tree diagram shows the relationships between several groups of organisms.

The root of the current tree connects the organisms featured in this tree to their containing group and the rest of the Tree of Life. The basal branching point in the tree represents the ancestor of the other groups in the tree. This ancestor diversified over time into several descendent subgroups, which are represented as internal nodes and terminal taxa to the right.

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You can click on the root to travel down the Tree of Life all the way to the root of all Life, and you can click on the names of descendent subgroups to travel up the Tree of Life all the way to individual species.

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Containing group: Arthropoda

Other Names for Diplopoda


Blower, J. G. 1985. Millipedes. Synopses of the British Fauna (New Series). No 35. The Linnean Society of London.

Enghoff, H. 1984. Phylogeny of millipedes - a cladistic analysis. Zeitschrift für zoologische Systematik und Evolutionsforschung 22:8-26.

Enghoff, H. 1990. The ground-plan of chilognathan millipedes (external morphology). Pages 1-24 in Proceedings of the 7th International Congress of Myriapodology. A. Minelli, ed. E. J. Brill, Leiden.

Enghoff, H., W. Dohle, and J. G. Blower. 1993. Anamorphosis in millipedes (Diplopoda)- the present state of knowledge with some developmental and phylogenetic considerations. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 109:103-234.

Golovatch, S. I., R. L. Hoffman, J. Adis, and J. W. Demorais. 1995. Identification plate for the millipede orders populating the Neotropical region south of Central Mexico (Myriapoda, Diplopoda). Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment 30:159-164.

Hoffman, R. L. 1979. Classification of the Diplopoda. Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, Genève.

Hoffman, R. L., S. I. Golovatch, J. Adis, and J. W. Demorais. 1996. Practical keys to the orders and families of millipedes of the Neotropical region (Myriapoda: Diplopoda). Amazoniana 14:1-35.

Hopkin, S. P. and H. J. Read. 1992. The Biology of Millipedes. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Jeekel, C. A. W. 1970. Nomenclator generum et familiarum Diplopodorum: a list of the genus and family-group names in the Class Diplopoda from the 10th edition of Linnaeus 1758 to the end of 1957. Monografieen van de Nederlandsche Entomologische Vereeniging, Number 5.

Kime, R. D. and S. I. Golovatch. 2000. Trends in the ecological strategies and evolution of millipedes (Diplopoda). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 69:333-349.

Shear, W. A. 1998. The fossil record and evolution of the myriapods. Pages 211-220 in Arthropod Relationships. Systematics Association Special Volume Series 55. R. A. Fortey and R. H. Thomas, eds. Chapman & Hall, London.

Shear, W. A. 1999. Millipeds. American Scientist 87:232-239.

Shelley, R. M. 2007. Taxonomy of extant Diplopoda (Millipeds) in the modern era: Perspectives for future advancements and observations on the global diplopod community (Arthropoda: Diplopoda). Pages 343-362 in: Zhang, Z.-Q. & Shear, W.A., eds. Linnaeus Tercentenary: Progress in Invertebrate Taxonomy. Zootaxa 1668:1–766.

Sierwald, P., W. A. Shear, R. M. Shelley, and J. E. Bond. 2003. Millipede phylogeny revisited in the light of the enigmatic order Siphoniulida. Journal of Zoological Systematics & Evolutionary Research 41(2):87-99.

Information on the Internet

Title Illustrations
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Scientific Name Harpaphe haydeniana
Location Kings Valley, Benton County (Oregon, US)
Comments Flat-backed millipede
Specimen Condition Live Specimen
Source Collection CalPhotos
Copyright © 2000
Scientific Name Ommatoiulus rutilans
Location Montoliu de Lleida, Catalonia, Spain
Specimen Condition Live Specimen
Source Milpeus - Milpiés - Millipede (Ommatoiulus rutilans) 6
Source Collection Flickr
Image Use creative commons This media file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License - Version 2.0.
Copyright © 2008 Ferran Turmo Gort
Scientific Name Octoglena anura
Location Kennedy Creek, Mason County (Washington, US)
Specimen Condition Live Specimen
Source Collection CalPhotos
Copyright © 2000
About This Page

Page: Tree of Life Diplopoda. Millipedes. The TEXT of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License - Version 3.0. Note that images and other media featured on this page are each governed by their own license, and they may or may not be available for reuse. Click on an image or a media link to access the media data window, which provides the relevant licensing information. For the general terms and conditions of ToL material reuse and redistribution, please see the Tree of Life Copyright Policies.

Citing this page:

Tree of Life Web Project. 2002. Diplopoda. Millipedes. Version 01 January 2002 (temporary). http://tolweb.org/Diplopoda/2532/2002.01.01 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/

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Each ToL branch page provides a synopsis of the characteristics of a group of organisms representing a branch of the Tree of Life. The major distinction between a branch and a leaf of the Tree of Life is that each branch can be further subdivided into descendent branches, that is, subgroups representing distinct genetic lineages.

For a more detailed explanation of the different ToL page types, have a look at the Structure of the Tree of Life page.

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