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Joseph W. Brown
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taxon links [down<--]Palaeognathae Interpreting the tree
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This tree diagram shows the relationships between several groups of organisms.

The root of the current tree connects the organisms featured in this tree to their containing group and the rest of the Tree of Life. The basal branching point in the tree represents the ancestor of the other groups in the tree. This ancestor diversified over time into several descendent subgroups, which are represented as internal nodes and terminal taxa to the right.

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Relationships amongst Apteryx species as determined by ecological, morphological, behavioural, and molecular characters (Baker et al., 1995; Burbidge et al., 2003).

Containing group: Palaeognathae

Other Names for Apterygidae


Baker, A. J., C. H. Daugherty, R. Colbourne, and J. L. McLennan. 1995. Flightless brown kiwi of New Zealand possess extremely subdivided population structure and cryptic species like small mammals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 92: 82548258.

Burbidge, M. L., R. M. Colbourne, H. A. Robertson, and A. J. Baker. 2003. Molecular and other biological evidence supports the recognition of at least three species of brown kiwi. Conservation Genetics 4: 167-177.

Calder, W. A. 1979. Kiwi and egg design - evolution as a package deal. Bioscience 29: 461-467.

Davies, S. J. J. F. 2002. Ratites and Tinamous. Oxford University Press, New York.

Gill, F. and M. Wright. 2006. Birds of the World: Recommended English Names. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press.

Potter, M., and J. McLennan. 1992. Kiwi's egg size and moa. Nature 358: 548.

Sales, J. 2005. The endangered kiwi: a review. Folia Zoologica 54: 1-20.

Information on the Internet

Title Illustrations
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Scientific Name Apteryx australis
Reference John Gould. 1840-1869. Birds of Australia.
Scientific Name Apteryx owenii
Reference John Gould. 1840-1869. Birds of Australia.
About This Page

Joseph W. Brown
University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA

Correspondence regarding this page should be directed to Joseph W. Brown at

Page: Tree of Life Apterygidae. Kiwis. Authored by Joseph W. Brown. The TEXT of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License - Version 3.0. Note that images and other media featured on this page are each governed by their own license, and they may or may not be available for reuse. Click on an image or a media link to access the media data window, which provides the relevant licensing information. For the general terms and conditions of ToL material reuse and redistribution, please see the Tree of Life Copyright Policies.

Citing this page:

Brown, Joseph W. 2005. Apterygidae. Kiwis. Version 19 December 2005 (temporary). http://tolweb.org/Apterygidae/26285/2005.12.19 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/

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This page is a Tree of Life Branch Page.

Each ToL branch page provides a synopsis of the characteristics of a group of organisms representing a branch of the Tree of Life. The major distinction between a branch and a leaf of the Tree of Life is that each branch can be further subdivided into descendent branches, that is, subgroups representing distinct genetic lineages.

For a more detailed explanation of the different ToL page types, have a look at the Structure of the Tree of Life page.

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